Newsletter of the International Association of Egyptologists says: "We
are delighted now to confirm that the next event (i.e. XIIth
International Congress of Egyptologists) will take place in Luxor, from 9
to 14 November 2019."
Flats in Luxor will be offering accommodation at a special price for conference participants.
Dr Campbell Price – Perfected Forms Functions of Non-Royal
Sculpture in the Late Period
Where Rosalie talked about the purpose of the space in a
temple Campbell wants to talk the purpose of statues in a temple. His PhD was
on rituals through the evidence of statues.
He extensively studied the statues from the Cachette at
Karnak. These were found under the court in front of the 7th pylon. They
were discovered between 1903 and 1905 by Georges
Legrain working under the supervision of Gaston Maspero,
and represent the largest find of statuary ever made in Egypt and perhaps
anywhere in the world. Some 20,000 artefacts were found including nearly 1000
statues with over half were private statues from the 1 millennium BC. The rest
included 17,000 bronzes, wooden statues, offering tables, stele.
These statues are densely inscribed non-royal hard stone
statues from 25th to early Ptolemaic period. There is an online
which means anyone can look at the statues and Campbell said it was a model of
how to present a museum catalogue.
The Cachette location is the centre of the Karnak complex
and this may be significant. Due to the high water table it was described as
fishing for status and context was lost, some wooden status did not survive. In
fact they had to stop for safety reasons and it may well be there is just as
much again to be found. (At another lecture I attended there was some mention
that with the dewatering project perhaps it is worth having another go?)
Bernard V. Bothmer studied these statues and a 1930’s label
describes the inscriptions as non-interesting!! In fact the inscriptions are
very interesting and inform us about two things.
·Family tree and genealogy information similar to
that found at Deir el Medina
·Historical Art. The stylistic analysis was very
subjective. With him saying he could recognise them in real life from their portraits.
This assumes realism rather than idealism about the portrait. (Would you show
yourself as fat and bald if this was going to be your eternal image)
Campbell thinks there is a third thing we can learn is how
the statues were used in the space, the conceptualism. Rosalie told us about
the space but without the statues we have an incomplete picture.
What was the motivation of having your statue in the temple
rather than in your tomb? It would seem this indicated a level of insecurity
about continued offerings at the tomb. By having your statue in the temple you
could ensure to receive the continued offerings that took place there. Your
statue would get food, drink, and incense, have processions got past, and hear
hymns. Some of the inscriptions support this idea “…one of his following..” “…united
with the god back against the wall …”
Offerings were present firstly to the god, then to the royal
ancestor, then the priest ate them. But private statues could get a small slice
of this action. The design of the statues often facilities this with large flat
surfaces on which offerings could be laid. However this could cause problems
and there are other inscriptions that beg people to dust and clean the statues
and remove waste offerings.
By being in the Cachette Court statues were in a key
position to still receive offerings even though they were buried.
On type of statue, Naophorous, where
the private individual is embracing the shrine of the god or the god himself.
This could ensure you got offerings, weren’t damages, and were kept clean. Status
of the individual with Osiris are more common than Amun.
Statues are distributed all over Karnak often by doorways or
entrances to chapels, places where you might be seen. Some were made by a son
to make his family divine, to live again. JE 36728 is an example of archaising
the art showing a family group. The inscription says “causing his wife to be
Pediamenope TT33 was an antiquarian and he says “….recite in
order to make the monument complete” By having a range of statues of every
possible style you could encourage people to visit your statue because it was
so unusual. Another inscription said a gift of the king, was this copying an
Healing statues, these had inscription on them that might
cure people. Water would be poured over them and then the water could be drunk
and it would magically have the ability to cure AND you could ensure offerings.
An interesting question was asked by Ray Johnson, what were Campbell’s
thought on the reason for the Cachette. Obviously another one of these subjects
with many views. Campbell thought it was a massive foundation offering.
Campbell has a blog https://egyptmanchester.wordpress.com/,
facebook and twitter
From Facebook with lots of photos https://www.facebook.com/pg/luxor.governorate/posts
Since the beginning of 2017 ,Dr/
Khaled El-Anani and Dr/Mostafa Waziri have made a string of
archaeological discoveries including the discovery of Userhat tomb in
18th of April and other tomb in 9 of September and today the discovery
of the two tombs . On Saturday, Dr/ Khaled El-anani (minister of
antiquities) announced the discovery of two ancient tombs at Dra abu el
–Naga (cemetery for the noblemen) in the west bank of the Nile at Luxor.
The first tomb bearing a number of "150" dates back to 18th dynasty and
contains a cartouche carved on the ceiling of the rectangular hall
bearing the name of king Thutmose 1, Among the artifacts found inside
the tomb are more than one hundreds funerary seals , and contains two
burial shafts located in the northern and southern sides of the tomb .In
the southern one , a burial chamber to Isis-Nfrt (may be the owner of
the tomb ).
Dr/Mostafa Waziri "Secretary general of the supreme
council of Antiquities " said that the other tomb bearing a number of
"161" . The tomb has a wall paintings on the southern side of the
western wall represented the owner of the tomb presented the offerings
to the gods .The artifacts found inside were mostly fragments of wooden
This happened during the largest festival at Luxor
governorate with the attending of Dr/ Ghada wali "minister of social
solidarity ", Christina Georgieva "world bank chief executive officer " ,
Ambassador of Serbia , Mohammed Badr "Governor of Luxor" , Dr/Mostafa
Waziri "Secretary general of the supreme council of Antiquities " and a
number of audio-visual media at the local and international level .
Mohammed Badr "Governor of Luxor" said that we made a restoration to
one of the largest statue at Luxor temple and thanked all the missions
worked in the archaeological sites in the governorate especially the
Egyptian mission .
"As the Ministry of Antiquities declares that year
2017 is the year of discoveries in Egypt, Minster of Antiquities Dr.
Khalid El-Enany announces today Saturday 9/12/2017, the
discovery of a new tomb and the re-discovery of an older one at Draa Abul Naga
necropolis on Luxor’s west bank.
Dr. Mostafa Waziri, Secretary-General of the Supreme
Council of Antiquities and Head of Egyptian excavation mission explains that
both tombs were given special numbers by German archaeologist “Frederica Kampp”
during the 1990s.
The first tomb has the number of “Kampp 161” and has
never been excavated before while the second one has the number of “Kampp 150”
and archaeologist Kampp started its excavation until reaching its entrance gate
but never entered it.
Since then both tombs were left untouched until the
Egyptian archaeological mission started its excavations during the recent
# Tomb Kampp 161
It is located to the north of tomb No. TT225, and the
tomb of city’s councilor Userhat (Kampp 157) uncovered in April.
Although the name of the tomb’s owner is yet
unidentified, the wall paintings, engravings and inscriptions found in the tomb
suggest that it could be dated to the era between the reign of King Amenhotep
II and the one of King Thutmose IV.
Owner of the tomb:
The owner of the tomb is yet unknown
The tomb has a court lined with stone and mud-brick
walls. It has a six meters deep burial shaft at its southern side that lead to
four side chambers.
The tomb’s entrance is located at the eastern side with a
sandstone façade without any inscriptions. It leads to a rectangular hall with
a Niche. Studies reveal that the tomb was reused in antiquity.
The inscriptions of the Tomb:
All the inscriptions are found on the western wall
located at the tomb’s northern end. It shows two feast scenes. The first
depicts a person, probably the deceased’s brother, presenting offerings and
flowers to the deceased and his wife.
The second scene is found below the first one and shows a
number of guests standing in four rows among which a row consists of three men
and three women. The first man in the row is the Keeper of the storeroom.
The artifacts discovered inside the Tomb:
Most the discovered items are fragments of wooden
coffins. The most important are:
A large wooden mask which was originally a part of an
Osirian coffin A small painted wooden mask.
A fragment of a gilded wooden mask in a bad condition of
Four legs for wooden chairs that were among the deceased
The lower part of a wooden Osirian shaped coffin
decorated with a scene of goddess Isis lifting up her hands.
# Tomb Kampp 150
It is located to the south of tomb Kampp-157 and next to
According to the cartouche of king Thutmosis I found
engraved on the ceiling of one of the tomb’s chambers, it could be dated to the
end of the 17th Dynasty and the beginning of the 18th Dynasty
Owner of the tomb:
The tomb’s owner is unknown yet but there are two
The first suggests that the tomb could belong to a person
named “Djehuty Mes” as his name was engraved on one of the walls.
The second possibility sees that the owner could be the
scribe “Maati” as his name and the name of his wife “Mehi” were inscribed on 50
funerary cones found in the tomb’s rectangular chamber.
The tomb has five eastern entrances that open on a
rectangular hall partly damaged with two burial shafts. The first one is
located at the northern side and the second is at the southern side. Another
two chambers were found which one of which has a niche and two burial shafts of
ten and seven meters deep.
A burial of a woman named “Isis Nefret” was found.
Studies suggest that it could be the mother of the tomb’s owner. Inside the
burial a wooden coffin painted with yellow and different ancient Egyptian
scenes was found along with 36 Ushabti figurines. A very special ushabti
depicting Isis Nefret in the form of Osiris is found. It is 60 cm tall and
painted in white, red, green, blue, yellow and black.
The tomb has only one inscription on one of its northern
It shows a scene of a seated man offering food to four
oxen, the first one is kneeling in front of the man who is giving it herbs.
The scene also depict five people while fabricating
The entrance of the long hall inscribed with remains of
hieroglyphic text with the name of “Djehuty Mes.” The ceiling of the chamber is
inscribed with remains of hieroglyphic inscriptions and the cartouche of King
The artifacts discovered inside the tomb:
100 funerary cones
Painted wooden funerary masks
A collection of 450 statues carved in different materials
such as clay, wood and faience Small box in the shape of a wooden coffin with a
lid. It was probably used for storing an Ushabti figurine of17 cm tall and
6 cm large
A collection of clay vessels with different shapes and
sizes A mummy wrapped in linen where its hands are on its chest in the Osirian
form. The mummy was found inside the long chamber.
Studies suggest that the mummy could be for a top
official or a powerful person
* Note the tombs had already numbers, Kampp -150- and
Kampp -161-, which refers to the survey of (excavated and unexcavated) tombs by
Friederike Kampp in Die Thebanische Nekropole. Zum Wandel des Grabgedankens von
der XVIII. bis zur XX. Dynastie (Mainz 1996). So different numbering than the
BTW if you want to join the EEF mainling list which I highly recommend details are here http://www.egyptologyforum.org/EEFApply.html
Antiquities Minister Khaled El-Enany is set to formally announce the
discovery of two tombs at Draa Abul Naga in Luxor on Saturday, one
bearing a painted wall.
According to a source who requested anonymity, the tombs belong to two
top officials from the New Kingdom (16th to 11th centuries BC); the
mummy mask of one of the deceased was also discovered.
In September the minister as announced the discovery of the tomb of god Amun-Re’s goldsmith in Draa Abul Naga.
The tomb had a rich funerary collection and a large number of ushabti
funerary figurines, gilded coffins, mummies wrapped in linen and
funerary mask and cones were unearthed.
As I went in Ibrahim Soliman told me the lectures are coming
back every Sunday which is brilliant news. AND we have another lecture this Sunday
by Dr Campbell Price on Perfected Forms - The Functions of Late Period
Non-Royal Sculpture. Spoilt or what
The Tomb belonging to Amen Hotep III vizier, Amen Hotep Huy
28 seasons 2009 – 2017 Dr Francisco Jose Martin Valentin
Tonight’s lecture was very fascinating as Dr Francisco had
some interesting things to say on the co-regency between Amenhotep III and
Akhenaton. This is one of these subjects that if you get four Egyptologists in
the room discussing it you will get five different theories so it was
fascinating to hear his views.
The project started in 2009, the location of the tomb is
close to the causeway of Hatshepsut and the purpose of the project was to
protect to the tomb.
The tomb is unfinished and follows a pattern of a longitudinal
hall, followed by a smaller room, then a larger room followed by a hypostyle
hall with 30 columns in three rows. Very influenced by the tomb of Kheruef
TT192. The central way has columns in various stages of decoration. There is a
statue Amenhotep Huy CG590 and vizier year 30-32, he was southern vizier. The tomb
has suffered Damnatio
memoriae with specific damage to the body and face.
2009 the entrance was covered and there was a lot of debris filling the tomb.
It had been reused for burials and mummification preparation in the late 20th,
third intermediate period and late period. There was graffiti of the worship of
Osiris. A shabti of high clergy of the 3rd intermediate period Padi
Iry Khonsu had been found. He was a relative of Osorkon.
By 2010 they had cleared the entrance to the tomb (the slides showed an amazing
Dr Francisco spoke about his conclusions
regarding the co-regency of Amenhotep III and Akhenaton. He thinks there was a
short co-regency of 2-3 years followed by a period of co-existence of 8 – 9 years. (During the
question and answer sessions at the end I asked what he meant by that and
roughly Amenhotep III was the living God and Akhenaton was the actual ruler).
inscriptions showed a mixture of Amenhotep III and Akhenaton cartouches with
both being described with royal titular. He believes this def indicates a co-regency.
There was a co-regency at the first Heb Sed
one title says beloved of the ruler of Ipy Sut (Karnak) which is Amen Re. The
inscriptions are similar to Kheruef (published by Chicago). In the 27th
day of the 2nd month in the 30th year there were two
viziers of southern Egypt, Amenhotep Huy and Ramose evidence by the Soleb
temple in years 29-31 Amenhotep Huy was Amenhotep III vizier. Ramose was
Akhenaton’s. There is strong evidence that work on the tomb stopped suddenly
are the same mistakes in the inscription in Kheruef and Amenhotep Huy
indicating the same artist. Instead of the sign U19 (the adze) I10(the snake)
have reconstructed the pillars as it is most important to preserve these
inscriptions. The columns are 4.25 high and 1.75 wide at the base, closed
found an intact burial from the 22nd dynasty of a Wab priest.
Ceramics from the jubilee and an interesting solar stele RN 10683-17 with a
depiction of the sun between the mountains like the sign N27
It was great to be back at the Mummification Museum for a
lecture. There is another on Thursday at 7pm Dr Francisco Martin-Valentine
talking about Amen-hotep, Huy Tomb AT 28. And another on Sunday at 5pm subject
to be announced.
Prof Rosalie David – The Temple of Sethos at Abydos –
Analysing the wall scenes and decoration.
Prof David has been working on mummified remains at
Manchester but her PhD was on the subject of Abydos.
Abydos is central to Egypt not only geographically but
religiously because of the cult Osiris. It wasn’t that long since the Amarna
period and Seti wanted to reaffirm religious orthodoxy and the legitimacy of his
line. Her PhD was to analyse the decoration and assess whether it was just
pictorial or ritual. Although it is now accepted as ritual, back in 1967 this
was not known.
A temple had 4 aspects
·Island of Creation
·House of the God
·Development from hut shrines
·Position of the king
Island of creation
The ancient Egyptians believed creation started with an
island emerging from an expanse of water. There was a stick in the island and a
bird alighted on it and all temples were based around this concept and follow
the same pattern. Except Abydos is different it is L shaped with several sanctuaries.
The Osirion is the cenotaph of the god. Rosalie believes that it originated in
the Old Kingdom because of its similarity to Chephren’s temple.
Two temples can be divided into cult and mortuary. Cult is
for the worship of the god. Mortuary is for the worship of the god and the king
both during his lifetime and after his death. A cult ritual was the same ritual
and a mortuary had the same ritual plus worship of the ancestors. It seems
weird to us but the king would actually worship himself as a dead defied being.
Scenes can either be formal depicting historic events, e.g.
battles, royal family members and coronation or they can be cultic rites.
Abydos has mortuary depictions with the addition of Osiris rituals.
In First and Second courts the pylons have gone and the roof
has been concreted over in the hypostyle hall so the view looks very different.
The decoration is by Ramses II, the courts were open and the scenes are propaganda
and historic showing battles, royal princesses and depicting him as the pious
son of Seti.
The many columns are not needed to support the structure;
they are representing the plant forms on the island of creation. The decoration
is formal showing the king and the gods. It provides a processional way to the sanctuaries.
There are 6 sanctuaries which means there are 6 chances to observe the ritual.
They can be compared to other temples and papyrus like the Berlin papyrus which
had 66 rituals of Amen.
The ritual which they though was essential to the continued existence
of Egypt consists
·Awakening the statue of the God
·Cleansing with water and incense
·Putting on clothes, makeup and insignia
·Prayers and meals 3 times a day
·Putting the statue to bed
An interesting side point is because the priests and their
families partook of this rich diet of meat and alcohol they suffered side
effects. Atherosclerosis which was thought to be a modern
disease has been identified and Rosalie has written an article published by the
As well as these rituals for the statue the
sacred bark would have been censed. Additional there is the ritual of the royal
ancestors or Amenhotep I. We have temple reliefs, stele and papyri describing
this. This took place in the left part of the temple, the extra rooms, the 7th
chapel and the gallery of the lists. The suite of rooms Nefertem Ptah Sokar
Hall and rooms was an important part of this. In the hall of barks there was a
sandstone ledge that was used for barks and offerings.
The corridor of the bull was decorated with
magical/mythological scenes not ritual. In this area you also have the
foundation of the temple scenes. One room, the butchery room was separate from
the rest for pious reasons.
The Osiris Mysteries took place in the Osirion
and Osiris complex. The raising of the Djed pillar is the most notable part.
The second Osiris hall is the hall of life.
The scenes are
Doing the analysis
Rosalie had to look at who was in the scene what they were
doing and what they were saying. The entire temple had to be transliterated,
Sequence had to be established and finally identify the function and use. There
was a lot missing so it was a difficult task. The results were originally
completed in 1971. A 2nd edition was published in 1981. In 2016 it
was revised and has ALL translation, line drawings, transliteration and plates.