Thursday, 24 July 2008

Mummification Museum Lecture - The Religious Texts in TT353 – An Interpretation Dr Francisco J Martin Valentin

The Religious Texts in TT353 – An Interpretation Dr Francisco J Martin Valentin

Actually this was a really good follow on from his lecture last year and my visit to the tomb so I do recommend you read those two entries before this one. It was one of the most detailed and comprehensive lectures I had been to and I do hope I got down enough information so readers can follow it. If you have copies of the Pyramid Texts, Coffin Texts and Book of the Dead you can read the contents of the text. I just did not have enough time to take down more than the references.

The tomb of Senenmut was discovered in 1927 and is the second tomb for him. There are some very important texts in this tomb and these are the key to understanding this monument.

Dr Francisco showed the relationship between KV20 and Deir el Bahri and stated there was a similar relationship between TT353 and the temple. The tomb contains the oldest astrological ceiling.

Who exactly was Senenmut, in the opinion of Dr Francisco he was one of the most important men in Egyptian history. He rose from humble beginnings to become the most important man in Egypt after the Queen. He has numerous titles reflecting his importance and he was also the steward of princess Nefer-ra.

The monument was not finished and only one chamber was decorated. What legacy has the Steward of Amun, Senenmut left for us inside?

He has a general idea of the text but his aim is to make a complete translation of all the text. It is 68 meters to chamber A and the tomb itself is 48 meters deep. There was no chapel outside. Chamber A is the most important with a ritual space in front of the false door which is also unfinished.

There is a date of unidentified month of Peret (season) day 10 year 16 which is quite important as it gives a high regional year.

One inscription says “O you who are living in the two lands, scribes and lector priests, you who are knowledgeable and adore the God recite the transfiguration spells of the steward Senenmut”.

Special texts seem to have been deliberately chosen. Along the ceiling is

The lecture presented the texts anti clockwise starting with the east wall between the entrance door and north wall and going round north wall, west wall with false door, south wall and finishing east wall between the south wall and entrance door way.

The central line of hieroglyphics has Senemut and Hatshepsut’s names in relationship and the red crown is emphasised. They are united in their protocols.

Start to the left of the entrance door on the East wall we have the deceased as a mummy, with quotations from CT (Coffin Text) 69, 68, 67B, 73, 72 and 74B.

The North wall shows him going to heaven and the solar boat of Ra thru the 14 hills CT B22, B37 PT(pyramid Text) 364, 1259, 61C, BD(Book of the Dead) CXLIV one side and Liturgies and CT74A and B34 the other. These are mostly about Osirus. As everyone knows kings become Osirus and Senenmut is following their path.

Also on the North Wall there is BD CXXXVI (Osirus), CXLIX (Ra 14 hills) and CT 74B, BD CXLIV. The chapter CXXXVI is much more common in Ramaside times and very unusual at this time.

There is also some graffiti which appear to be a date of inspection 4th month of Akhet day 21

On the West wall we have BD CI, CXLIV and CXLIX where he starts to the Fields of Hotep which is the normal destination. He is given the names of the guardians of the seven gates. The very rough layout is below

CXLVII 7 heavenly cows FALSE DOOR Hymn to the sun
CXLV 21 goes thru 21 gates to Fields of Hotep CXLIIV knows the names of the guardians
CXXXVIIB Eye of Horus destroys Seth 4 steering oars

First example of Chapter 110 of the Book of the Dead. The centre of the false door has the name of Hatshepsut between 2 Anubis and 2 Senenmuts with offering tables. Appearing as Nefertum CT 50-52 PT 266

The South wall is the Fields of Hotep and the kingdom of Osirus. The deceased has arrived triumphant and can now come and go. He owes the Red Crown. The king of Lower meant both at this time as the Red Crown had special power. CX Fields of Hotep and the 10 districts of Hotep CXLVI Five gates of the mansions of Osirus.

PT 6096, 6106 63B 7B1 7B2 and 2028 show Senenmut as a royal spirit. Underneath are liturgies and PT 220, 221, 222, 94 and 95. On the other side CX CT723 and 752 4 cakes and neheru bread. Receives the offerings of the 4 sons of Horus. There is further graffiti 4th month Akhet day 29 which he thinks is a special day for the priests.
He feels the statues of Mentuhotep wearing the red crown have a connection with the text. Senemut is going through a new transformation to become a divine being.

Finally the East wall to the right of the entrance door has CT 63, 64, 65, 66,67A and on the other side liturgies. Senenmut is transformed into a divine being like the king and receives offerings.

The ceiling could be from 3 dates 18-19 march, 16-17 Jul, 14-15 Nov.

They need to make the connection with the graffiti it is possible that the priests needed to do something in the temple and make the ritual more affective.

The characteristics of chambers B and C mean it was probably planned to have similar texts like those of the 19-20 dynasty. As the tomb goes under the temple chamber A is outside the temple precinct but B and C are within and that is where Senenmut would be portrayed like the dead Osirus. The monument would transform Senenmut.

It is a cenotaph like the funerary temple and the body was intended to be in TT71 where Winlock found a canopic head and amulets.

The axis of the Wadjet eyes in the false door line up with the eyes in front of the Hathor chapel and the further eyes inside the shrines where there is one of the small representations of Senenmut. The line is 265 meters and only deviates to 40 cm so there is a further connection of the Queen between Amun and Hathor

TT82 Amenemhet a steward of the Vizier and scribe of the granary of Amun (middle rank positions) under Thothmosis III had copies of the texts. KV35 Amenhotep II and KV34 Thothmosis II have PT 220,221,222 which are similar texts 35 years after the monument.

Mr Mansour announced that after Eid they would be moving the bazaars at the temple, there would not be a visitor’s centre but the building next to the café would be used to display Senenmut 1st July 2008. Next weeks lecture on 15th would beTT69 Meena.

This entry was posted on Tuesday, December 11th, 2007

No comments: